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dc.contributor.authorHwang, Jason A.
dc.contributor.authorChatterjee, Sourav
dc.contributor.authorLombardi, James C. Jr
dc.contributor.authorSteffen, Jason H.
dc.contributor.authorRasio, Frederic A.
dc.date.accessioned2018-01-23T14:16:48Z
dc.date.available2018-01-23T14:16:48Z
dc.date.issued2018-01-01
dc.identifier.citationHwang, J., Chatterjee, S., Lombardi, J.C. Jr., Steffen, J.H., and Rasio, F. (2018). Outcomes of Grazing Impacts between Sub-Neptunes in Kepler Multis. Astrophysical Journal 852(1): 1-24. Doi: 10.3847/1538-4357/aa9d42en_US
dc.identifier.issn0004-637X
dc.identifier.issne1538-4357
dc.identifier.otherArticle #41
dc.identifier.otherIDS# FR8RK
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10456/45494
dc.description.abstractStudies of high-multiplicity, tightly packed planetary systems suggest that dynamical instabilities are common and affect both the orbits and planet structures, where the compact orbits and typically low densities make physical collisions likely outcomes. Since the structure of many of these planets is such that the mass is dominated by a rocky core, but the volume is dominated by a tenuous gas envelope, the sticky-sphere approximation, used in dynamical integrators, may be a poor model for these collisions. We perform five sets of collision calculations, including detailed hydrodynamics, sampling mass ratios, and core mass fractions typical in Kepler Multis. In our primary set of calculations, we use Kepler-36 as a nominal remnant system, as the two planets have a small dynamical separation and an extreme density ratio. We use an/V-body code, Mercury 6.2, to integrate initially unstable systems and study the resultant collisions in detail. We use these collisions, focusing on grazing collisions, in combination with realistic planet models created using gas profiles from Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics and core profiles using equations of state from Seager et al. to perform hydrodynamic calculations, finding scatterings, mergers, and even a potential planet-planet binary. We dynamically integrate the remnant systems, examine the stability, and estimate the final densities, finding that the remnant densities are sensitive to the core masses, and collisions result in generally more stable systems. We provide prescriptions for predicting the outcomes and modeling the changes in mass and orbits following collisions for general use in dynamical integrators.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipNASA (NNX12AI86G / NNX16AK08G / NNX16AK32G), NSF GK-12 Fellowship through NSF (DGE-0948017), NSF (AST-1313091), Office of the Provost, the Office for Research, and Northwestern University Information Technology.en_US
dc.language.isoen_USen_US
dc.publisherInstitute of Physicsen_US
dc.relation.ispartofThe Astrophysical Journalen_US
dc.relation.isversionofhttps://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aa9d42en_US
dc.rightsThis article has been accepted for publication in The Astrophysical Journal ©: 2018. Hwang, J., Chatterjee, S., Lombardi, J.C. Jr., Steffen, J.H., Rasio, F. Published by the American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.en_US
dc.subjectequation of stateen_US
dc.subjecthydrodynamicsen_US
dc.subjectmethods: numericalen_US
dc.subjectplanets and satellites: dynamical evolution and stabilityen_US
dc.subjectplanets and satellites: gaseous planetsen_US
dc.subjectstars: individual (Kepler-36)en_US
dc.titleOutcomes of Grazing impacts between Sub-Neptunes in Kepler Multisen_US
dc.description.versionPublished articleen_US
dc.contributor.departmentPhysicsen_US
dc.citation.volume852en_US
dc.citation.issue1en_US
dc.citation.spage1en_US
dc.citation.epage24en_US
dc.identifier.doi10.3847/1538-4357/aa9d42
dc.contributor.avlauthorLombardi, James C. Jr


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