Effects of larval energetic resources on life history and adult allocation patterns in a caddisfly (Trichoptera: Phryganeidae)
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Jannot, Jason E.
Wissinger, Scott A.
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Subjectallocation; Caddisflies; clutch size; complex life cycle; life history; metamorphosis; Phryganeidae
1. How populations respond to environmental change depends, in part, on the connection between environmental variance during early life stages and its effect on subsequent life-history traits. For example, environmental variation during the larval stage can influence the life histories of organisms with complex life cycles by altering the amount of time spent in each stage of the life cycle as well as by altering allocation to life-history traits during metamorphosis. 2. The effects of larval energetic resources on developmental timing, adult mass, fecundity, mating success, and allocation to adult body structures (thorax, abdomen, wings) were examined in an aquatic caddisfly (Agrypnia deflata Milne, Trichoptera: Phryganeidae). Larval energetic reserves were manipulated by removing larval cases just prior to pupation. In the first experiment, cases of all individuals were removed just prior to pupation; experimental individuals were required to build a new case whereas control individuals were allowed to re-enter their case without building. In the second experiment, energy differences were maximised between the two treatments by supplementing the larval diet of the control group and removing cases and not supplementing the diet of the experimental group. 3. Male and female development time, adult mass, and female fecundity were not influenced by case removal or diet supplementation. In contrast, allocation to adult body parts indicated a trade-off between abdominal and thoracic mass among case-removal females, suggesting that, under larval resource stress, females adjust resource allocation during metamorphosis to alleviate potential negative impacts on clutch size. In addition, latency to copulation increased when cases were removed, indicating larval resource stress could influence male mating success. 4. This study suggests that, under larval energetic stress, the negative impacts on female reproduction might be mitigated by re-allocating resources during metamorphosis, whereas male allocation strategies might not be as flexible as female strategies.